What is RFID?
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is used to identify and monitor all living and non-living objects from a certain distance without touching them. RFID technology is becoming increasingly popular all over the world and in our country and it is used in many sectors. It is active and widely used in a wide range of applications in many sectors such as automotive, petroleum, logistics, retail, agriculture, health, medicine, textile, finance, banking, energy, public, production, security and tourism.
The issue of whether RFID devices are harmful to the health is not related about labels and antennas, but to the output powers generated by readers. For UHF RFID readers, our country operates in EIRP standard with (reader power output + antenna gain) – cable loss formula can output up to max 2W
RFID is actively used in textile and logistics management, especially in the retail sector.
At the garage gates for the vehicles with RFID tags, our systems perform password checks and provide security against copy tags.
Fast Transition System is an ATS (Automatic Transition System) solution based on UHF RFID technology specially designed to control input and output that provides secure and fast access to company car parks at site gatess, indoor parking, etc.
The labels must be applied to the upper corner driver side of the windshield for low vehicles such as automobiles etc, and bottom corner driver side of the windshield for higher vehicles such as jeeps, minibuses, buses etc from inside. Since there is an electronic circuit with microprocessor in the label construction, the maximum attention must be paid so that the label is not damaged due to the folding and bending of the label during bonding.
UHF RFID tags are systems consist of an antenna and UHF label chip. The labels differ depending on the surface to be mounted.
RFID is a technology that has existed since the 1960s and proved itself especially in American defense industry. It was very expensive until today and was used very scarce in institutional applications. Now that this has changed, the prices of RFID tags have now come down to acceptable levels for many projects.
The big difference is; the barcode is technologically defined as “line-of-sight”, that is, the barcode tag and the barcode reader look at each other in some way. So, users have to hold the scanner to the barcode and make them read it. RFID tags can be read as long as they are within range of the RFID reader. Especially in busy working environments, RFID can read dozens or even hundreds of separate products at the same time. With a barcode this is not possible. In addition, standard barcodes define only the manufacturer and the product, not the object itself. In RFID, a lot of information about the product can be defined.
Barcode is a technology that has proved itself and is being used by many institutions today, despite its disadvantages. RFID can do everything that a barcode does, but barcode is insufficient for most things that RFID allows. However, the barcode seems to be going on.
RFID technology can be useful in many areas from process follow up to warehouse placement. In busy working environments, RFID can read dozens or even hundreds of separate products at the same time. In addition, it reduces administrative errors, workmanship defects, in-house stealing, shipping errors, and stock level errors during bar code scanning.
The communication required to read the recorded information in the RFID tag is provided by radio frequency (RF) signals through the reader and the antenna in the label. The RFID tag is detected by the reader when it enters the reading field and sends the chip wirelessly and noncontactly to the reader via the information antenna stored together with its code.
RFID tags and readers must be set to the same frequency to communicate. RFID systems use many different frequencies and the most common ones are low frequency (LF) 125-134 kHz, high frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz and ultra high frequency (UHF) 860-960 MHz and super high frequency (SHF) 5.8 GHz . In addition, 2.45 GHz (microwave) is also used in some applications.
RFID chips themselves have a unique ID code and any information about the object to be recognized can be recorded. The memory capacities of RFID chips can be determined according to the application / need. The name, product code, etc. of the objects can be solved with memory capacity at maximum 1K level. High memory capacity is required when loading a lot of information about an object, or monitoring objects depending on the application, or when it is desired to keep track of information continuously. But simple labels are available that can get the 96 bit serial number commonly. These simple tags can be used as single use because they are both easy to produce and cost effective
Depending on the method of receiving the energy, the tags are divided into active, passive and semi-passive. Active RFID tags have a transmitter and a power supply. The power supply activates the microchip circuits, allowing the signal to be sent to the reader. Passive labels do not have a power source. They receive power from the reader, which stimulates the antenna of the tag by sending electromagnetic waves. Semi-passive labels use a power supply to activate the chip circuits, but they receive a reader warning to communicate. Active and semi-passive labels are used for high value assets that must be followed over long intervals and are more expensive than passive labels.
The reading distance of RFID tags depends on several factors: frequency of operation, power of reader, overlap with other RF devices, etc. Generally low frequency labels can be read from 35 cm. and less distance. High frequency labels can be read from 1 meter, UHF labels can be read from 3-7 meters. When larger distances are required, 100 meters can be reached using active labels.
Most passive RFID tags reflect the waves coming from the reader. Energy harvesting is a technique in which the energy from the reader is held for a moment and the different frequencies are sent back to the reader. This technique can significantly improve the performance of passive labels.
Radio waves are absorbed by metal, sugar and water at very high frequencies. This creates problems in the follow-up of products containing metal or high water, but a good system design and engineering work can overcome this problem. Labels on low and high frequencies are better for products containing water and metal. In fact, there are applications where RFID tags are used to match metal automotive parts, pharmaceutical bottles or liquid containers.
RFID readers have 3 types which are hand carried, portable by a vehicle and fixed. They have the task of reading the codes of the tags and the information stored in it and forwarding them to the system. Readers also work according to the standards of the chips (such as ISO 14443, ISO 15693). Reading capacity of RFID reader can be changed by chip frequency, power, whether the RFID tag is active or passive, the sensitivity of the antenna, whether it is liquid or metal in the environment. For readable and rewritable labels, the reading capacity is generally higher than the writing capacity. Active RFID chips also have wider coverage than passive RFID chips.
This mode is used to prevent overlapping of multiple readers when they are close together. Readers can detect a signal between different channels in a certain frequency range (between 902 MHz and 928 MHz in the US) before using a channel. If they perceive that the other reader is using the channel, another channel is used to avoid conflict with this reader.
RFID writers also have fixed and portable models like readers. RFID writers are used to record information in the chips inside the tags, to read and update the information. They can be connected to the desktop, laptop and handheld computers either wired or wireless. In addition to recording the information in the RFID tag, there are also RFID printers that also print the tag.